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1] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para.

1] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para.

Additionally it is hard due to the under-reporting of the style of criminal activity, the monetary and hr necessary for investigating it, the tendency to analyze the straightforward objectives, the role that is limited of authorities and its own basic inexperience and neglect of criminal activity on social media marketing therefore the implications of legislation on freedom of phrase. Finally, regulations just possesses impact that is limited behavior – this is additionally the actual situation in social media marketing, where architecture or rule additionally plays an important role in managing behaviour. Any response that is regulatory need certainly to take into account and accordingly deal with these challenges. Consequently, whenever speaking about responses that are regulatory this is done into the context regarding the challenges.

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Criminal activity on personal Media – The full Case for Linking Users’ Social networking Registrations with their National Identity quantity

OVERVIEW: After speaking about the difficulties with regulating, policing and crime that is investigating physical violence on social media marketing, the task will now handle the matter of reactions towards the challenges. The goal of this chapter is always to gauge the effectiveness of the present British approach to crime that is regulating social media marketing and provide the choice of connecting users’ social media marketing registrations along with their nationwide identification quantity. Firstly, the UK that is current approach be examined by examining its theoretical fundamentals and exactly how it was implemented into the context of social media marketing. Next, the chapter can have the proposition of launching the way of measuring linking users’ registration with their ID by discussing two samples of situations where a requirement that is similar been place in training – the required enrollment of prepaid SIM cards in certain states therefore the Sina Weibo social media marketing in Asia. Finally, the chapter will talk about the potential of this measure to handle the difficulties of investigation and regulation of criminal activity on social media marketing in britain.

The UK that is current approach most readily useful summarised into the House of Lords choose Committee on Communications report on social media marketing and unlawful offences: ‘what is maybe not an offense off-line really should not be an offense on line.’[76] In line with the conclusions regarding the report, the UK that is existing legislation with the capacity of coping with task of managing criminal activity on social media marketing.[77] The side that is substantive of approach is scheduled down into the Crown Prosecution’s provider October 2016 guidelines on prosecution of crimes involving communications sent through social media marketing.[78] The rules divide the offences on social media marketing in four categories[79] – (1) communications which constitute threat to violence or damage to home; (2) communications that especially target people (harassment, stalking, managing behavior, revenge pornography, etc.); (3) communications which add up to a breach of the court purchase or even a statutory prohibition (juror misconduct, contempt of court, breach of restraining purchase, etc.) and (4) grossly unpleasant, indecent, obscene or false communications. It sets out of the current legislation that is primary tackling criminal activity on social media marketing therefore the axioms whenever using it – there clearly was high limit during the evidential phase, the context of social media marketing where interaction is instantaneous, casual, usually sick considered and with unintended effects, the general public fascination with prosecution of criminal activity on social media marketing and Art. 10 ECHR on freedom of phrase.[80]

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Overview regarding the UK that is current Approach Respect to Crime on Social media marketing:[81]

The UK that is current approach on the basis of the concept of online-offline equivalence – the presumption that there ought to be equivalence of therapy between on line and offline tasks and on line and offline law respectively.[90] The concept can be divided in to equivalence of application (the responsibilities imposed by the norm that is legal be comparable) and equivalence of regulations ( the end result of using a norm must certanly be comparable).[91] While equivalence of application can be achieved, easily equivalence of result is not very fully guaranteed according to online legislation. Samples of such divergence of results will be the application of copyright legislation to your online environment which is on the basis of the concept of copying, legislation of se’s which may not be equated compared to that of telecoms, access providers or broadcasters.

Social network platforms converge audio-visual and printing news with interaction platforms, hence making the utilization of the equivalence that is online-offline problematic. Criminal activity on social media marketing varies from criminal activity into the world that is physical. As an example, cyberbullying varies from bullying in many different methods. The victims have no idea their perpetrators – roughly in about 31 % of situations victims understand their perpetrator.[92 into the most of situations] it has essential implications for the victims that they can act without fear of punishment and makes them commit crimes that they would not otherwise commit in real life as it reinforces the perpetrators’ sense.[93] While the target of old-fashioned bullying can actually escape the torments regarding the bully, cyberbullying victims are deprived with this choice since many individuals use technology for a basis that is regular and so the target can be tormented whenever you want and anyplace with no any safe destination to retreat to.[94] There clearly was systematic research showing that some kinds of cyberbullying cause more harm than old-fashioned bullying, particularly cyberbullying involving blood supply of videos and images[95] as when such content is released on social media marketing, its reach grows exponentially and it’s also tough to limit it, causing permanent humiliation regarding the target.[96]

Offered these substantive distinctions, its difficult to observe the concept of online-offline equivalence can cause regulation that is adequate of on social media marketing. Firstly, with regards to equivalence of application, as there clearly was inherent trouble in pinpointing the perpetrators of cybercrimes, and so, crooks feel it is not possible to apply the law online in the same manner as in the physical world that they can act with impunity. Next, in terms of equivalence of result is worried, whilst the damage brought on by cyberbullying can be higher than the damage brought on by old-fashioned bullying, using the law that is same maybe not create the same end up in regards to delivering justice towards the victims. Cyberbullying is just an example of a social crime that is media-assisted. The specific situation of inadequacy regarding the legislation that is current worse in respect to social-media enabled and social-media reliant crimes. The release of disturbing live videos on Facebook[97] – a criminal practice that became commonplace after the release of the ‘Facebook live’ feature in 2016 for example, there are no readily available legislative means of prevent.

All this demonstrates that contrary to the claim created by the House of Lords report that the prevailing British legislation is with the capacity of coping with criminal activity on social media marketing, it is not the actual situation, and adjustment that is either serious the current framework is needed, or basically brand new legislation that deals especially using the dilemma of cybercrime must certanly be enacted. A requirement to connect social media marketing individual registrations using the users’ nationwide identity quantity is just a proposition in light among these dilemmas.

This notion hails from the insurance policy in certain states to oblige mobile operators to need proof identification from users if they join A sim that is pre-paid card.[98] This requirement is justified on grounds of assisting police agencies in apprehending crooks and terrorists, hence ultimately causing lowering of criminal activity, terrorism and  ehaviour that is anti-social.[99] It absolutely was used in training into the context of Internet services in Asia where last year the us government introduced a legislation needing users of several online solutions to join up along with their names and supply their ID that is national quantity.[100] It has been place in training by the greatest Chinese networking that is social – Sina Weibo.[101] Exactly How this proposition spent some time working in training will below be discussed.

The explanation that various states utilize for introducing this type of policy vary, nevertheless the most frequent one is curbing unlawful task.[102] Other reasons consist of curbing theft that is widespread of phones. Such is the case in Latin America where in fact the phone that is mobile quantity (IMEI quantity) is registered against a certain SIM to facilitate research of theft.[103] The main concern is always to make certain that there clearly was sufficient age verification process.[104 in other nations] based on the conclusions regarding the GSM Association’s 2016 report about the subject,[105] your choice of states whether or not to adopt this type of policy is straight for this option of nationwide identification papers which can be compared against the state federal government registry.[106] As an example, great britain does not have any formal ID system that is verifiable. The repealed Identity Cards Act 2006[107] included a supply for developing an identity that is national,[108] that has been to be always a dependable record of registerable factual statements about people in britain. Having less an identity that is national and consistent evidence of ID is hence related to having less a dependence on mandatory enrollment of pre-paid SIMs.[109] Where there’s absolutely no verifiable registry that is national proof ID is required upon registration, usually the real presenting regarding the papers therefore the real existence regarding the customer are expected before their enrollment can be prepared.[110]

The registration that is mandatory of SIMs is suffering from a number of downsides. There exists a possibility for fraudulent enrollment of SIMs by crooks, that have taken ID details of an individual. The measure additionally starts up the likelihood for emergence of black colored areas for fraudulently registered or taken SIM cards, which could possibly be another nagging issue regarding the full bowl of regulations enforcement agencies.[111] Additionally, the SIM or the device can be actually fond of another individual or taken, generally there isn’t option to make certain that the one who has committed a criminal activity could be the person under whose name an unknown number is registered. Finally, a SIM enrollment requirement is jurisdictionally restricted, generally there is not any option to block international crooks whom target a specific nation running a mandatory enrollment requirement with a phone in a nation which won’t have this type of requirement.[112] The approach that is alternative SIM enrollment is legal interception of communications which need phone operators to own ability set up to monitor communications in realtime and invite usage of the enforcement agencies whenever required upon authorisation through the appropriate authorities. Here is the approach great britain has adopted – the development that is latest in this respect had been the Interception of Communications Act 2016. The UK’s approach is consistent with the requirements of Art in respect to cybercrime. 21 Council of European countries Cybercrime Convention,[113] which empowers its states that are signatory legislate and supply measures for real-time collection and interception of content information, susceptible to the conditions in Art. 15(1) which will be that the measure is according to the ECHR. There’s absolutely no supply into the Cybercrime Convention needing states to consider connecting of users’ registration with their ID that is national quantity.

Asia possesses long reputation for wanting to introduce a policy that is real-name cyberspace.[114] The first tries to do so are not effective without it ahead of the introduction of the measure.[115 since it had not been feasible to force users to produce their nationwide ID quantity retroactively, in other words. after they have actually registered] When the policy had been introduced on Sina Weibo, this dilemma had been managed by disabling the responses functions of old users whom will not register their ID that is national quantity.[116] The explanation behind the insurance policy would be to expel speech that is‘bad on the net. The due date for the utilization of the enrollment by way of a ID that is national on Sina Weibo expired in March 2012, nevertheless the problems with applying the insurance policy persisted following the due date.[117]

The development of connecting users’ registration along with their ID that is national quantity a number of dilemmas. Firstly, there clearly was opposition with respect to social media platforms such as for example Sina Weibo due to the enormous expenses of applying the insurance policy and making certain users’ information is held safe, the administrative burden of verifying users’ registrations are genuine[118] therefore the impact that is negative company since it leads to withdrawal of users.[119] More over, you are able to form any ID that is chinese upon enrollment, generally there is just a big market for taken or leaked ID figures with no option to validate whether the enrollment is accurate and genuine.[120] This led to proliferation of local social media after China denied market access to foreign social networking platforms such as Facebook. The utilization of the insurance policy by the greatest networking that is social – Sina Weibo, led to migration of users to alternate platforms which do not run the insurance policy and hence, break what the law states.[121] The rest of the users found techniques to circumvent the necessity by establishing their location to ‘overseas’ or through investing in a SIM and making use of Sina Weibo by way of a network that is mobile.[122] There exists a SIM that is mandatory card requirement in Asia, nevertheless the sellers of mobile phones usually fill out fake information.[123] During the time that is same there clearly was small that the us government may do to compel all social media marketing internet sites to implement the ID enrollment policy. The us government has fascination with maintaining all users using one or two platforms after which focusing on these with its policy. Industry in Asia is fragmented after the withdrawal of worldwide media that are social therefore, users no further make use of predominantly 1 or 2 platforms.[124] The us government could close the infringing platforms, nonetheless it cannot avoid creating of the latest people and fragmentation regarding the market.

There are numerous of reasoned explanations why needing social media marketing internet sites to link users’ enrollment with their nationwide ID quantity could have impact that is positive police in britain.

The House of Lords choose Committee on Communications report dedicated to social media marketing and unlawful offences rightly defines the requirement for police agencies in order to effortlessly determine crooks on social media – “there is small point in criminalising specific behavior as well as the same time frame legitimately making that exact same behavior impractical to detect.”[125] It is proportionate to need operators that are website establish the identification of users before they are able to register a free account.[126] Subsequently however, in line with the committee that is select, users should really be permitted to utilize the social network platform simply by using pseudonyms.[127]

There clearly was some logic in this declaration in light regarding the protection threats, the spread of ubiquitous surveillance, terrorist propaganda, criminal activity and organised criminal activity on social media.[128] A style of which is the necessity to link users’ enrollment along with their nationwide ID quantity, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) has noted that this type of measure improves behavior on social media marketing, produces a more civil environment and has now a preventive energy over stalking and harassment by launching accountability for actions on social media.[129 in terms of real-name policies] Interestingly, the EFF has recommended that applying the necessity wil dramatically reduce the necessity for legal interception of interaction, currently performed by way of a true number of governments, like the UK.[130] This is often a conclusion that is consistent considering that as noted above, governments which do not have basic nationwide registry and centralised recognition system by way of a uniform identity document have a tendency to count on spying the online world. The matter of increased spying is amongst the big concerns that are public great britain. Maybe it’s argued that when the introduction of ID registration on social media marketing contributes to less spying with respect to the us government, the media that are social may well be more prepared to call it quits their information that is personal. This theory, but, will not be tested in training. Extremely little conclusions in this respect could possibly be drawn through the Sina Weibo experience since federal government control regarding the online in Asia is section of every day life and there’s no such revolt that is public the training like in the actual situation of the UK’s extensive interception of communications.

An incredible number of reports on Facebook are part of kiddies who’re beneath the age that is minimum setting up a profile regarding the platform – 13 years.[131] Launching a requirement to link users’ enrollment along with their ID number is just a real means of launching age verification during the gateway of social media marketing internet sites and coping with the situation with under-aged users.[132] Related to this aspect, social media marketing sites are suffering from a challenge by having a number that is massive of reports.[133] Asking for ID number upon enrollment will reduce the amount substantially of fake reports.

As talked about in Chapter we,[134] one of many challenges of policing and crime that is prosecuting social media marketing could be the immense individual and money that this calls for and also the time so it takes. Having easily obtainable methods to determine the idea of origin for many crimes on social media marketing will relieve this dilemma up to a extent that is great. This can reduce steadily the training to count on amateur detectives – theoretically savvy residents whom practice investigating criminal activity without having to be alert to the code that is official of because of this task then ahead the data towards the authorities. Connecting users’ registration to their nationwide ID quantity also reduce steadily the distraction regarding the authorities with finding evidence that is previously unavailable small criminal activity and get back its consider severe criminal activity and physical violence on social media marketing.

The linking of users’ registration on social networking platforms with their national ID number, has the potential for expanding the impact of law on behaviour on social media by introducing accountability for one’s actions. In Chapter I it absolutely was argued that regulations has restricted effect on behavior as behavior can be affected by the norms that are social market therefore the architecture regarding the environment.[135] You can find three straight ways by which legislation influences results – acting under danger of punishment (first-order enforcement), being at the mercy of casual sanctions by the culture as a consequence of the legislation (second-order enforcement) and internalisation regarding the legislation and avoidance of committing crimes as a result of the possibility of guilt (third-order enforcement).[136] The measure under conversation gets the potential of reinforcing the third-order enforcement once the crooks’ sense as it is difficult to identify them and attribute the criminal act to them will be addressed that they can act with impunity on social media.

OVERVIEW: The present British approach to regulating and crime that is investigating physical violence on social media marketing is founded on the presumption that what exactly is maybe not an offense on line ought not to ever be viewed an offense on line. Here is the alleged equivalence principle that is online-offline. But, you can find substantive variations in terms of scale, range and amount of damage between comparable crimes into the world that is physical on social media marketing as demonstrated by the exemplory instance of cyberbullying. Additionally, you can find social media-dependent crimes, that aren’t familiar towards the justice system that is criminal. These facets give the UK that is current legislation to manage old-fashioned criminal activity insufficient to handle the specificity of criminal activity on social media marketing. The proposition to need from social network platforms to request users’ nationwide identification quantity upon enrollment is just a departure through the concept of online-offline equivalence. It had been first introduced into the context of mobile phones using the dependence on mandatory enrollment of SIM cards in certain states and networks that are social Asia. Both in full situations, there has been problems with enforcing the measure, due to the fact users make an effort to circumvent it through different means. The measure has some restricted prospective to ease the nagging dilemmas of legislation and research of criminal activity on social media marketing in britain. It may facilitate the attribution of unlawful functions and so, partially curtail those activities of crooks. Additionally, it features a genuine prospective to decrease the price of and time used on investigating criminal activity on social media marketing and minimize how many fake reports and reports owned by minors that are under-aged. Perhaps, it might additionally enhance third-order enforcement regarding the statutory legislation through self-restraint of crooks and minimize the necessity for concealed surveillance with respect to the us government.

[1] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para. 7

[2] Statista, ‘Forecast of Twitter individual figures into the great britain (UK) from 2014 to 2021 (in million users)’, Statista (online) https://www.statista.com/statistics/553538/predicted-number-of-facebook-users-in-the-united-kingdom-uk/>

[3] Statista, ‘Number of Twitter users into the great britain (UK) from 2012 to 2018 (in million users)’, Statista (online) https://www.statista.com/statistics/271350/twitter-users-in-the-united-kingdom-uk/>

[4] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal para. 9

[5] Khan, U. ‘Juror dismissed from the test after making use of Facebook to help with making a decision’, The Telegraph (online), 24 2008 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/lawreports/3510926/Juror-dismissed-from-a-trial-after-using-Facebook-to-help-make-a-decision.html> november

[6] Ibid.

[7] HM Attorney General v Davey [2013] EWHC 2317

[8] Ibid., para. 6

[9] Chapter 4

[10] Dodds, L. ‘’Tiger porn’ case: Can you fare better compared to the CPS?’, The Telegraph (online), 28 2014 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/law-and-order/11193829/Tiger-porn-case-Can-you-do-better-than-the-CPS.html> october

[11] Keep Calm Talk Law, ‘The State of Extreme Law into the UK’, Keep relaxed Talk legislation Legal we Blog (online), 2 December 2014 http > that is://www.keepcalmtalklaw.co.uk/the-state-of-extreme-pornography-law-in-the-uk/

[12] Press Association, ‘Social media-related criminal activity reports up 780% in four years’, The Guardian (online), 27 December 2012 https://www.theguardian.com/media/2012/dec/27/social-media-crime-facebook-twitter>

[13] Statista, ‘Daily time used on social network by internet surfers worldwide from 2012 to 2016 (in mins)’ https.statista.com/statistics/433871/daily-social-media-usage-worldwide/> that is://www

[14] Ibid.

[15] Pelgrin, W. ‘3 factors why criminals exploit social support systems (and suggestions to avoid getting scammed)’, CSO (online), 5 June 2013 http://www.csoonline.com/article/2133563/social-engineering/3-reasons-why-criminals-exploit-social-networks–and-tips-to-avoid-getting-scamme.html>

[16] France, L.S., Verdier, C. ‘Kardashian heist: Police say social media marketing made her a target’, CNN News (online), 5 October 2016 http.html> that is://edition.cnn.com/2016/10/04/entertainment/kim-kardashian-police-social-media/index

[17] Wall, D. ‘The online as being a Conduit for Criminal Activity’ (Version 2015), in Information Technology and the Criminal Justice System, edited by April Pattavina (Thousand Oaks, Sage, 2005) 77, pp october. 80-81

[18] Armstrong, H.L., Forde, P.J. ‘Internet privacy techniques in computer crime’ [2003] 11(5) Suggestions Management & Computer protection 209, p. 211

[19] Tsesis, A. ‘Terrorist Speech on Social Media’ [2017] 70(2) Vanderbilt Law Review 651, p. 655

[20] Berger, J.M. ‘The Evolution of Terrorist Propaganda: The Paris Attack and personal Media’, Brookings (online), 27 2015 https://www.brookings.edu/testimonies/the-evolution-of-terrorist-propaganda-the-paris-attack-and-social-media/> january

[21] Pease, K. ‘Crime futures and foresight: Challenging behaviour that is criminal the information and knowledge age’, in criminal activity together with online: Cybercrimes and Cyberfears, modified by David Wall (London, Routledge 2001) 18, p. 22

[22] Ibid.

[23] Curtis, C. Anti-Social Behaviour: a Perspective that is multi-National of every day to your Extreme (London, Sage 2016), p. 69

[24] Evans, M. ‘Police dealing with tide that is rising of news crimes’, The Telegraph (online), 5 June 2015 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/crime/11653092/Police-facing-rising-tide-of-social-media-crimes.html>

[25] Surette, R. ‘Performance Crime and Justice’ [2015] 27(2) present dilemmas in Criminal Justice 195

[26] Surette, R. ‘How social media marketing is changing just how individuals commit crimes and police fight them’, LSE US Centre we Blog (online) http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/usappblog/2016/01/28/how-social-media-is-changing-the-way-people-commit-crimes-and-police-fight-them/>

[27] Wall, D. ‘The online as being a Conduit for Criminal Activity’, p. 81

[28] Žižek, S. Violence: Six Sideways Reflections (New York, Picador, 2008)

[29] Recuero, R. ‘Social Media and Symbolic Violence’, personal Media + Society 1 (April-June 2015), p. 1

[30] Boyd, D. network that is‘Social as networked publics: Affordances, characteristics, and implications’, in Networked self: identification, community, and tradition on online networks, modified by Zizi Papacharissi (ny, Routledge, 2011) 39, p. 45

[31] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal first Report of Session 2014–15, HL Paper 37 (London, Stationery workplace, 2014), para. 9

[32] Ibid., para. 10

[33] Hörnle, J. ‘Countering the perils of online pornography – Shrewd regulation of lewd content’ [2011] 2(1) European Journal of Law and tech

[34] adjusted from Wall, D. ‘The online as being a Conduit for Criminal Activity’, p. 81

[35] Ibid., pp. 80-81

[36] meeting for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1950, Rome, 4 1950 november

[37] Strohecker, D.P. ‘The Crisis of Authenticity: Symbolic Violence, Memes, Identity’, Cyborgology (online), 23 March 2012. https://thesocietypages.org/cyborgology/2012/03/23/the-crisis-of-authenticity-symbolic-violence-memes-identity/>

[38] R v Smith (Wallace Duncan) ( number 4) [2004] EWCA Crim 631, para. 55

[39] R v Sheppard & Anor [2010] EWCA Crim 65, para. 24

[40] Brenner, S., Koops, B.J. ‘Approaches to Cybercrime Jurisdiction’ [2004] 4(1) Journal of tall tech Law 1, p. 10

[41] Kohl, U. ‘Barbarians in Our Midst: ‘Cultural variety’ in the Transnational online’ [2014] 5(1) European Journal of Law and tech

[42] Brenner, S., Koops, B.J. ‘Approaches to Cybercrime Jurisdiction’, p. 6

[43] Hörnle, J. ‘Countering the perils of online pornography’

[44] Crossley, L. ‘How police ‘ignore cybercrime’: just one single in 100 situations is examined inspite of the wide range of online fraudulence situations rocketing in present years’, day-to-day Mail (online), 24 2015 september < http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3247176/How-police-ignore-cybercrime-Just-one-100-cases-investigated-despite-number-online-fraud-cases-rocketing-recent-years.html>

[45] National Crime Agency, ‘NCA Strategic Cyber Business Group Cyber Crime Assessment 2016’, Variation 1.2, 7 2016 july. Offered by http://www.nationalcrimeagency.gov.uk/publications/709-cyber-crime-assessment-2016/file>

[46] Wall, D. ‘Cybercrime, Media and Insecurity: The shaping of general public perceptions of cybercrime’ [2008] 22(1-2) Overseas summary of Law, Computers and Technology 45, p. 48

[47] Ibid., p. 56

[48] Ibid.

[49] Ibid., p. 57

[50] McGovern. A., Milivojevic, S. ‘Social news and criminal activity: the nice, the bad additionally the ugly’, The discussion (online), 16 2016 october < https://theconversation.com/social-media-and-crime-the-good-the-bad-and-the-ugly-66397>

[51] Pelley, V. ‘Who done it? Resident investigators mine social media marketing for crime clues’, Aljazeera America (online). 7 2014 june < http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/6/7/citizen-crime-sleuths.html>

[52] Lessig, L. ‘The Law regarding the Horse: just What Cyberlaw Might Teach?’ [1999]113 Harvard Law Review 501, pp. 506-509

[53] Lessig, L. Code variation 2.0 (ny, Basic Books, 2006), p. 123

[54] Scott, R. ‘The Limits of Behavioural Theories of Law and Social Norms’ [2000] 86(8) Virginia Law Review 1603

[55] Lessig, L. Code version 2.0, p. 340

[56] Wang, F.Y., Zeng, D., Hendler, J., Zhang, Q., Feng, Z., Gao, Y., Wang, H., Lai, G. ‘A research regarding the Human Flesh internet search engine: Crowd-Powered Expansion of Online Knowledge’ [2010] 43(8) Computer 45, p. 45

[57] Ibid., p. 341

[58] Plessis, A.The Rise and Fall of the SecondEmpire: 1852–1871, translated by Jonathan Mandelbaum (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1985), p. 121

[59] Wall, D. ‘Cybercrime, Media and Insecurity’, p. 57

[60] Ibid.

[61] Investigatory Powers Act 2016, Chapter 25

[62] Suter, L. ‘Taxman unleashes its computer’ that is‘snooper information does its have actually you?’, The Telegraph (online), 7 2017 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/tax/return/taxman-unleashes-snooper-computer-information-does-have/> january

[63] Brenner, S. ‘At Light Speed: Attribution and a reaction to Cybercrime/terrorism/warfare’ [2007] 97(2) Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 379, p. 405

[64] Brenner, S. ‘Toward a Criminal Law for Cyberspace: Distributed Security’ [2004] 10(2) Boston University Journal of Science and Technology Law, pp. 49-59

[65] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal para. 51

[66] Ibid., para. 52

[67] Harkin, G. ‘Tragic Erin known as Ask.fm in committing suicide note, claims mother’, Independent Ireland (online), 14 2013 august < http://www.independent.ie/irish-news/tragic-erin-named-askfm-in-suicide-note-claims-mother-29497140.html>

[68] Defamation Act 2013, Chapter 26

[69] The Defamation (Operators of internet sites) Regulations 2013, SI 2013/3028

[70] Brenner, S. ‘At Light Speed’, p. 407

[71] Ibid.

[72] Ibid., pp. 409-410

[73] Brenner, S., Schwerha IV, J. ‘Transnational Evidence Gathering and Prosecution that is local of Cybercrime’ [2002] 20(3) Journal of Computer and Suggestions Law 347, p. 354

[74] Brenner, S. ‘At Light Speed’, p. 414

[75] Ibid., p. 415-416

[76] House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal para. 32

[77] Ibid., p. 5

[78] Crown Prosecution Service, ‘Guidelines on prosecuting situations communications that are involving via social media’ (October 2016) < http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/a_to_c/communications_sent_via_social_media/>

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid., under Category 4

[81] Simplified and adapted from House of Lords choose Committee on Communications, ‘Social news and offences’ that is criminal pp. 30-31

[82] Chapter 49

[83] Chapter 34

[84] Chapter 100

[85] Chapter 40

[86] Chapter 21

[87] Chapter 27

[88] Chapter 37

[89] Chapter 44

[90] Reed, C. ‘Online and Offline Equivalence: Aspiration and Achievement’ [2010]18(3) Overseas Journal of Law and i . t 248, p. 248

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